Quick break with Jonas Weed



A gal needs a break now and then from her regular work, even when she loves her regular work. This is a quick break to explore an ancestor who falls outside of my current project. The ancestor was chosen randomly for a little special attention. Breaks need to have limits, so only a few hours of study and writing were spent on this post. This is just a little introduction to a person whose story is much bigger than what is written here.

Jonas Weed (1610-1676)

Jonas Weed came to America as part of the Great Migration. He was an early settler in Massachusetts and Connecticut and was involved in the early days of the Colonies.

How is he related?

Jonas Weed was an 8th great-grandfather of Floyd Boyce Phillips.

Relationship chart, Floyd Boyce Phillips to Jonas Weed.

What do the robots know about Jonas?

Just for kicks, I thought it would be fun to see if a little artificial intelligence could help me write this post.

A view of Jonas

I asked Open AI’s DALL-E to generate “an Impressionist oil painting of a man named Jonas Weed who was born in 1610 in England, arrived in Massachusetts in 1630, at age 40 who attended the Congregational Church.” It gave me some ideas of how Jonas might have looked and dressed.

DALL-E Generated Portrait of Jonas Weed

This, of course, is not a real portrait of Jonas Weed. We will never know what he really looked like, but there is likely some similarity to how he dressed and these pictures.

So fun!

Facts about Jonas

Things got a little more complicated when I asked Open AI’s ChatGPT, “Can you write an essay about Jonas Weed who was born in 1610 in England and died around 1676 in Connecticut?

Without hesitation it gave me the following response.

Jonas Weed was a prominent figure in the early settlement of Connecticut. Born in 1610 in England, little is known about his early life. However, he is known to have migrated to America during the early 1630s, joining the wave of English Puritans seeking a new life in the New World.

Weed arrived in Massachusetts Bay Colony, where he quickly became involved in the colony’s political and economic affairs. In 1639, he was one of the signers of the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, which established the colonial government of Connecticut. This document is widely regarded as the first written constitution in American history, and Weed played an important role in shaping its content.

In 1641, Weed relocated to what is now Stamford, Connecticut, where he became one of the town’s leading citizens. He served as a selectman, or town council member, and was instrumental in establishing the town’s first school. Weed also played a key role in Stamford’s defense during the Pequot War of 1637, which pitted English colonists against the Pequot tribe.

Weed’s economic pursuits were equally impressive. He was a successful farmer and landowner, amassing a large estate in Stamford. In addition, he was involved in the production of iron, establishing a forge on his property that produced iron tools and implements for use by the colonists.

Weed’s leadership and contributions to the community did not go unnoticed. In 1658, he was elected to the Connecticut General Assembly, where he served for several years. He was also appointed to various judicial positions, including justice of the peace and assistant judge of the Fairfield County Court.

Despite his success, Weed faced significant challenges during his life. One of his biggest struggles was with the Native American tribes who lived in the region. In addition to the Pequots, who he had fought against during the Pequot War, Weed had to contend with the Wappingers and other groups who were unhappy with the encroachment of English settlers on their lands.

Weed’s legacy lives on today, as his descendants continue to live in Connecticut and other parts of the country. He is remembered as a founding father of the state, and his contributions to the early years of Connecticut’s history cannot be overstated. His life serves as a testament to the fortitude and resilience of the early English settlers who braved the challenges of life in the New World.


Okay, cool!

I chatted with ChatGPT a bit more to enhance the essay.

Here is some more that I know about Jonas. He came to America on the ship Arabella with John Winthrop and Sir Richard Saltonstall. Jonas and Saltonstall became founders of Watertown, Massachusetts, in June 1630. Jonas Weed was named a freeman in Watertown on 16 May 1631, and lived there until 29 May 1635. He then joined a group who removed to form Wethersfield, Connecticut. Can you add that to the essay?

-Spirits and Spirits

Thank you for the additional information about Jonas Weed. It sheds further light on his early life in America.

As you mentioned, Jonas Weed arrived in America on the ship Arabella with John Winthrop and Sir Richard Saltonstall. He and Saltonstall became founders of Watertown, Massachusetts, in June 1630. Weed was named a freeman in Watertown on May 16, 1631, which granted him the right to vote and hold public office.

Weed lived in Watertown for several years before joining a group of settlers who left to establish a new colony in Connecticut. In May 1635, he and others removed to form Wethersfield, Connecticut. There, he became involved in the town’s affairs, serving as a selectman and participating in the Pequot War of 1637.

Weed’s time in Wethersfield was relatively short-lived, as he moved once again in 1641 to Stamford, Connecticut, where he would spend the remainder of his life. However, his experiences in both Watertown and Wethersfield undoubtedly shaped his worldview and prepared him for the challenges he would face in Stamford.

Overall, Jonas Weed’s story is a testament to the adventurous spirit and determination of the early English settlers who came to America seeking a new life. His contributions to the founding of several colonies and his leadership in Connecticut’s early government and economy left a lasting impact on the state’s history.


I gave the tool a little more information and asked for a rewrite of the essay.

Jonas Weed, born in 1610 in England, was a key figure in the early colonization of America. He arrived in America on the ship Arabella with John Winthrop and Sir Richard Saltonstall, and together with Saltonstall, became a founder of Watertown, Massachusetts in June 1630. Weed was named a freeman in Watertown on May 16, 1631, granting him the right to vote and hold public office. He lived in Watertown for several years before joining a group of settlers who left to establish a new colony in Connecticut in May 1635. There, he became involved in the town’s affairs, serving as a selectman and participating in the Pequot War of 1637.

In 1641, Jonas Weed moved to Stamford, Connecticut, where he spent the remainder of his life. He married Mary _____ and together they had ten children: Mary, Elizabeth, John, Dorcas, Samuel, Jonas, Sarah, Hannah, Daniel, and a child who died shortly after birth.

Jonas Weed was an influential figure in Stamford, serving as a selectman, a grand juror, and a representative to the Connecticut General Assembly. He was also a farmer and a landowner, and he helped to establish the town’s economy. He died before 1676 and was buried in First Congregational Church Cemetery in Stamford, Fairfield, Connecticut, USA. Jonas Weed’s legacy lives on through his descendants and his contributions to the early colonization of America.


You get the idea.

After several more rounds with ChatGPT with me asking for additional information on things like his involvement in ironworking, the Pequot War, and government, I was fairly happy with the results.

Jonas Weed was an early English settler in America who played an important role in the establishment and growth of several colonies. He was born in 1610 in the village of Stanwick, Northamptonshire, England, and came to America on the ship Arabella with John Winthrop and Sir Richard Saltonstall. Jonas and Saltonstall became founders of Watertown, Massachusetts, in June 1630. Jonas Weed was named a freeman in Watertown on 16 May 1631, and lived there until 29 May 1635. He then joined a group who removed to form Wethersfield, Connecticut.

In Wethersfield, Weed was granted land on 14 June 1637 and participated in the Pequot War the same year. He served under Captain John Mason in the expedition against the Pequots, which was successful in defeating the Pequots and ultimately led to the establishment of the Connecticut Colony. Following the war, Weed turned to iron production and worked as an ironworker for several years. He was granted permission to build an ironworks in 1646 in Stamford, Connecticut, and worked there until his death.

In Stamford, Weed was an active member of the community and served in various positions of government. He was elected as one of the selectmen of Stamford in 1650 and held the position until 1657. He also served as a deputy to the General Court of Connecticut in Hartford in 1658, 1660, and 1662. Weed was a respected member of the community and was often called upon to serve on various committees and to help resolve disputes.

Weed’s life in Stamford was not without tragedy, however. His wife Mary died in 1660, leaving him to care for their many children. Weed continued to live in Stamford until his death before 5 June 1676. He was buried in the First Congregational Church Cemetery in Stamford.

While there is little information available about Weed’s personal life, his contributions to the early colonies of Massachusetts and Connecticut are significant. He played a role in the Pequot War, worked as an ironworker, and served in government positions. His legacy is reflected in the many descendants he left behind, including notable figures such as poet Robert Frost and former US president George H.W. Bush. Today, his memory is honored by the town of Stamford, which maintains a monument to him and his fellow founders of the town.


A nice essay.

We will come back to ChatGPT later and talk about whether or not it was full of lies.

The Real Life and Times of Jonas Weed

Jonas Weed was born in 1610. While that birth year is commonly used, it is likely just an estimate.

Some sources say he was born in Stanwick, Northamptonshire, England. Other sources say that his place of birth is unknown.

He may have been born earlier and in a different English location, but he surely was not born later since the 1610 date puts him at age 20 when he immigrated and 21 when he became a freeman in Connecticut.

Nothing is known about the early life of Jonas Weed in England.

He left England and arrived in Massachusetts in 1630. He first lived in Watertown, Massachusetts. In 1636, he moved to Weathersfield, Connecticut. Then, in 1642, he moved to Stamford, Connecticut.

When he was at least 27, he married Mary _____ in about 1637, probably in Weathersfield, Connecticut.

Jonas Weed and Mary ______ had the following children:

  1. Mary Weed was born between 1637–1639. She married George Abbott about 1657.
  2. Elizabeth Weed was born between 1637–1647 in Connecticut. She married John Rockwell. They are our direct ancestors. She died after 1676.
  3. John Weed was born between 1639–1643 in Connecticut. He married Joanna Westcott on 14 Feb 1665.
  4. Dorcas Weed was born in 1641 in Stamford, Connecticut. She died on 24 Dec 1692 in Middletown, Connecticut. She married James Wright on 20 Nov 1660 in Wethersfield, Connecticut.
  5. Samuel Weed was born between 1645–1653. He married Mary _____ about 1680.
  6. Jonas Weed was born on 01 Feb 1647 in Stamford, Fairfield, Connecticut, USA. He died on 19 Nov 1704 in Stamford, Fairfield, Connecticut, USA. He married Bethia Holly on 16 Nov 1670.
  7. Sarah Weed was born between 1649–1654 in Stamford, Fairfield, Connecticut, USA. She died after 1672.
  8. Hannah Weed was born between 1650–1651 in Stamford, Connecticut. She married Benjamin Hoyt on 05 Jan 1671 in Stamford, Connecticut.
  9. Daniel Weed was born in 1652 in Stamford, Connecticut. He married Ruth _____. He died on 29 Nov 1697 in Stamford, Connecticut.
  10. _____ Weed was born and died on 15 Jul 1656 in Stamford, Connecticut.

Jonas Weed died about 07 Nov 1676 in Stamford, Connecticut, and was buried there in First Congregational Church Cemetery.

The Arabella

Replica of the Arabella, Boston Public Library, Public Domain, via Wikimedia Commons.

Jonas came to America on the Arabella, with Sir Richard Saltonstall, as part of The Winthrop Fleet. He is included in the passenger list of that ship and in lists of those who took part in what was labeled The Great Migration. [Banks] [Great Migration]

The Arabella was the lead or flagship or Admiral ship in the fleet. Seven ships in the fleet carried passengers, the others were used to transport freight and livestock. The leader of this expedition was John Winthrop and he kept a journal of the voyage so some details of the voyage are known. [Banks, p. 33-39]

The Arabella and other ships were not built for carrying passengers. They were ordinary freighters built for transporting merchandise, dry and wet goods, from Mediterranean and European ports to and from English ports. It was never intended that the boats would be used to carry passengers on two to three month voyages. In other words, the ships were not very comfortable, especially for women and children. Temporary makeshift cabins were installed between the decks to protect passengers from the weather and to give them a little privacy. Just a little bit of protection and a little bit of privacy.

The weather was cold and stormy. Navigation was not an exact science. People were seasick. People suffered. People starved. People died. But eventually they saw land. They reached Massachusetts on 12 June 1630 after leaving England in April.

Watertown, Massachusetts

Jonas Weed settled first at Watertown, Massachusetts. Upon arrival in the New World, Sir Richard Saltonstall led a group of English settlers, including Jonas Weed, up the Charles River to settle in what became Watertown, Massachusetts.

The town was first known as Saltonstall Plantation and was home to 116 households. Sadly, Jonas Weed was not included on the monument there of first settlers. [Watertown Founders]

Jonas was made a freeman in Watertown on 18 May 1631. [Watertown]

In Colonial New England, a freeman was a term used to describe a male member of a town or colony who had been granted certain political and legal rights. These rights typically included the right to vote in town meetings, hold public office, serve on juries, and own property.

To become a freeman, an individual had to meet certain qualifications, such as being a member of a church or meeting certain property requirements.

The term “freeman” was used in contrast to “servant” or “indentured servant,” who were individuals who worked for a specified period of time in exchange for passage to the colonies or other forms of compensation. Freemen were considered to be independent, land-owning members of the community with a stake in the success of the colony.

Wethersfield, Connecticut

After a few years in Watertown, Jonas Weed was dismissed from the Watertown Church and allowed to move to or as they said back then “remove to” Wethersfield, Connecticut. This happened on 29 May 1635. [Public Records of the Colony of Connecticut]

Wethersfield is about 100 miles southwest of Watertown.

Yes, in order to move from one town to the next in very early Connecticut, one needed to get permission from the church.

The Public Records of the Colony of Connecticut, Volume 1, pp. 1, 2, excerpts.

Marriage and Land

Jonas married a woman named Mary in about 1637, presumably at Wethersfield, and started a family. We do not know Mary’s last name for sure, but some researchers claim she was Mary Hoyt.

According to his profile in The Great Migration, Jonas was included in a land inventory taken in Wethersfield on 25 April 1641. He held eight parcels of land.

seven acres “whereon his house standeth”

three acres in the Great Meadow

two acres in the Beaver Meadow

ten acres of dry swamp

four acres in the Island

two acres and three roods in Pennywise

[thirty?] acres in the West Field

twelve acres in the West Field

The Great Migration Begins, p. 1956 [Great Migration]
Colonies in Connecticut in the 1640s, National Geographic Society. [NGS]

Stamford Connecticut

He and Mary had their first two children in Wethersfield and still lived there in 1640, but by November 1642, he was in Stamford, Connecticut, where he was granted “a house and pasture land in the field to be inclosed.” Their last eight children were born in Stamford.

Jonas Weed is among the names of the 59 pioneers who were living in Stamford by the end of 1642. He was one of those who came the second year of Stamford’s existence. The founders of Stamford were men of religious principle. Their leader was a minister. The first church of Stamford had already been organized in Wethersfield before Stamford was founded. Four of the seven men who constituted the Wethersfield church came to Stamford. Jonas Weed was one of those men. The church was the center and soul of the new society formed in Stamford. The church was the first building built in town and every settler was expected to be at church services on each Lord’s Day. [History of Stamford, pp. 25-6, 45, 116-7]

Life in the wilderness of Stamford was strenuous. Upon arrival, land had to be cleared and homes built. There are no records to show who were appointed selectmen of Stamford from 1642 to 1666, but it is likely that Jonas Weed played some part in local government. But he was not among the list of representatives and senators to the state senate. [History of Stamford, p. 643]

The Weed family lived on the north corner of what is now called West Main Street and River Street, which is now called Washington Boulevard.


Jonas was about 66-years old (or older) when he died at Stamford, Connecticut, in 1676. He was buried there at the First Congregational Church Cemetery. His wife, Mary, died in 1690.

He wrote a will on 26 November 1672 that was proved on 07 November 1676. Luckily, the Will and inventory of his estate have been translated for us. His profile in the Great Migration series gives an excerpt.

Jonas Weed probate
Jonas Weed probate, Probate records, 1648-1916, Probate records, v. 1-5 1648-1750, FamilySearch, Film #007627300

In his will, dated 26 November 1672 and proved 7 November 1676, Jonas Weed Sr. bequeathed to “his wife Mary Weed the house he now lives in and the use of the houselot with two acres of meadow and two acres of upland lying in the East Field during her lifetime,” as well as £20 in moveables, including “his great Bible”; to “his eldest son John Weed two acres of meadow lying in Rockie Neck and more to the value of five pounds”; to his “son Daniell Weed” £10; to “his son Jonas Weed” £1; to “his daughter Mary Abbot the wife of Georg[e] Abbot” 30s.; to “his daughter Dorcas the wife of James Wright” 10s.; to “his son Samuell” £20; to John Rockwell 5s. and “five pounds in Daniel’s hands for Elizabeth”; to “his daughter Sarah the sum of five shillings and in case she do return again to the truth then he doth by will give unto her the sum of five pounds”; to “his daughter Hannah Benj[amin] Hoit’s wife” £10; wife Mary Weed, son Daniel Weed and son Jonas Weed to be executors.

An inventory of the estate of “Jonas Weed Sr.” taken 5 June 1676, totalled £116 9s. 6d., including £58 in real estate: “4 acres meadow,” £16; “6 acres of upland,” £18; “2 acres meadow,” £8; “1/2 Shiphan dividend of land,” £6; “Rocky Neck last dividend,” £2; “waste land in Rocky Neck,” £20s.; and “1 1/2 acre meadow next Mr. Lawes in the East Field,” £7.”

The Great Migration, pp. 1956-7. [Great Migration]

Fact Checking the Robot

Okay, back to the robot.

We have seen the ChatGPT generated essays of the life of Jonas Weed and been presented with some proven facts about him.

How does the essay stack up?

It sounds good.

But is it true?

Not all of it.


First off, his wife, Mary, died 10 Mar 1690 at Stamford, Connecticut, so the whole bit about his life not being without tragedy is completely made up. He may have had tragedy, but he did not have the tragedy of being widowed and left to care for children.

On the Stamford monument?

What about the monument to him and other town founders in Stamford?

Not exactly true!

There is a monument and it does list founders, but there is no Jonas Weed on the monument. There are two Jonas Woods, but no Jonas Weed. When I told ChatGPT what I had found, it had an answer.

Thank you for letting me know. It is possible that the name Jonas Weed was mistakenly left off the monument. It is also possible that there were multiple Jonas Woods in the area at the time, and the name on the monument refers to a different individual. Without further information, it is difficult to determine the exact reason for the discrepancy. However, based on historical records and the information available, we can still confidently assert that Jonas Weed was an early settler and influential figure in the development of Stamford, Connecticut.


Okay, so is the monument wrong?

Maybe. Probably.

Doing some deeper searching, I found that Jonas Weed was indeed considered an early Stamford settler. One site even included a map showing where in Stamford Jonas Weed lived. The History of Stamford by Elijah Baldwin Huntington clearly lists Jonas Weed as one of the original settlers.

Jonas Weed in Colonial Government

So what about Jonas Weed’s roles in government?

The chat bot told me that Jonas Weed “was elected as one of the selectmen of Stamford in 1650 and held the position until 1657. He also served as a deputy to the General Court of Connecticut in Hartford in 1658, 1660, and 1662. Weed was a respected member of the community and was often called upon to serve on various committees and to help resolve disputes.”

Could I prove that?


It is quite possible he served in the government in some capacity in the brand-new communities of which he was an early settler. But, no records have been found to confirm.

Involved in Iron Work?

No evidence has been found to support the claim by the chat bot that Jonas Weed was an iron worker who built a forge in 1646.

Connecticut History shows that the first Connecticut iron works were built in East Haven in 1655.

There is no mention of Jonas Weed or Stamford in The Early Iron Industry of Connecticut by Herbert C. Keith.

Signer of the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut?

No proof of this has been found.

The available records do not list every single man who signed though, so it is possible.

But this has not been proven.

Famous Kin?

The robot generated essay claimed that descendants of Jonas Weed included poet Robert Frost and former US president George H.W. Bush. That is possible, but not generally published. Instead, the Famous Kin website lists notable descendants as P.T. Barnum, Wild Bill Hickok, Cecil B. DeMille, and Nancy (Davis) Reagan.

Soldier in the Pequot War?

Jonas did live during the time of the Pequot War and in the vicinity of the Pequot War?

But did he serve?

If he did serve, he has been forgotten in the records. His name does not appear in any of the sources that were consulted, including Connecticut Soldiers in the Pequot War of 1637. Being a soldier was not included in his biography in The Great Migration.

In any case, Jonas Weed benefitted from the war since the destruction of the Pequot tribe opened up large areas of land for settlement of English immigrants.

Genealogist versus AI Bot

I am still more than a bit skeptical of artificial intelligence being able to replace human intelligence (and old-fashioned research) any time soon. But, going through this exercise, I have to admit that the generated essay did give me some clues for things to research about Jonas Weed that I may have otherwise overlooked. Though some of that was wasted time because the bot made things up.

I do worry that some people might take what the bot writes as gospel with no further thought. It scares me that the AI writes very confidently even when it is presenting fiction as fact. Even though there are warnings about that on the ChatCPT web pages, some people might take what looks like an easy way out and then spread inaccurate information that can be copied and reused and eventually look real.

As with any piece of research, sources need to validated and cited. When I asked the bot to cite sources it told me it could not do that. When I asked the question a different way, it did list some books and web pages that I could reference. Some (most) of those books and websites sounded official but did not really exist.

AI will improve over time, but this genealogist is not too worried about losing her job quite yet.

Not a coincidence

It must be disclosed that Jonas Weed was not selected randomly. He just seemed appropriate for a 4/20 post.

I thought that would entertain a few of my readers.

Our Mr. Weed did not have any real connection to 4/20.

DALL-E-generated portrait.

It is quite possible that Jonas was very familiar with hemp. But not for smoking. Hemp was a very important crop for the Colonists. We do not know if Jonas grew any, but cannabis has been grown in America since soon after the first Europeans arrived. It was in high demand for rope used on ships. Homespun hemp was used for clothing.

It was not until centuries after Jonas Weed’s death that cannabis smoking became popular. The laws in Connecticut likely would not have allowed it. Back then things were strict, a conviction for cursing your dad could bring the death penalty.

I’ll also confess that these quick breaks are turning out not to be so quick. These ancestors are so fascinating that it is easy to lose track of time.

If I had more time

If I had more time to spend on Jonas Weed, I would try to find him in John Winthrop Jr.’s medical records. It is cited on Family Search that he shows up there in 1657. The records are available online. But, the writing in those records takes a long time to read. Go figure? They were hand written in 1657. This page, for example, might have an entry for Jonas’ daughter , Elizabeth, the wife of John Rockwell and our ancestor: https://www.masshist.org/collection-guides/digitized/fa0294/v20-f05#10. But what does it say?

I would also spend time trying to figure out if Jonas’ wife’s maiden name was indeed Hoyt and I would also learn more about his children. Plus, I would scour the history books and records from the places that Jonas lived to try to find more.

For now though, this has been a little about Jonas Weed.


Ancestry.com. New England, The Great Migration and The Great Migration Begins, 1620-1635 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2013.Original data: Anderson, Robert Charles. The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England, 1620-1633, Volumes 1-3; The Great Migration: Immigrants to New England, 1634-1635, Volumes 1-6. Boston: New England Historical and Genealogical Society, 1996-2011. Profile of Jonas Weed found in Volume 3, pp. 1956-1959.

“Famous Kin of Jonas Weed,” Famous Kin (https://famouskin.com/famous-kin-menu.php?name=13445+jonas+weed : accessed 11 Mar 2023).



Ancestry.com. 80 immigrants : our Merrill-Covell pedigree [database on-line]. Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2005. Original data: Parsons, Gladys Merrill Covell,. 80 immigrants : our Merrill-Covell pedigree. Detroit, Mich.: Privately published, 1969.

Charles Edward Banks, The Winthrop Fleet of 1630, An Account of the Vessels, the Voyage, the Passengers and their English Homes from Original Authorities, Originally published 1930, Reprinted by Genealogical Publishing Co, Inc. Available on ancestry.com. Jonas Weed is included in the passenger list in the Appendix, p. 96.

“Colonies in Connecticut in the 1640s,” National Geographic (https://images.nationalgeographic.org/image/upload/t_edhub_resource_key_image/v1638888161/EducationHub/photos/colonies-in-connecticut-in-the-1640s.jpg : accessed 12 Mar 2023)

Henry Bond, M.D., Genealogies of the Families and Descendants of the Early Settlers of Watertown, Massachusetts, p. 963 (Little, Brown & Company, Boston: 1855) Google Books (https://www.google.com/books/edition/Genealogies_of_the_Families_and_Descenda/_oc6AQAAIAAJ : accessed 12 Mar 2023).

Elijah Baldwin Huntington, History of Stamford, Connecticut: From Its Settlement in 1641, to the Present Time, Including Darien, which was One of Its Parishes Until 1820 (Huntington: 1868) Google Books (https://www.google.com/books/edition/History_of_Stamford_Connecticut/b3EFAAAAQAAJ : accessed 12 Mar 2023).

James Shepard, Connecticut Soldiers in the Pequot War of 1637 (Meriden, Connecticut, The Journal Publishing Co.: 1913) Digital Commons (https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1040&context=etas : accessed 12 Mar 2023).

“Watertown Founders Monument,” Familypedia (https://familypedia.fandom.com/wiki/Watertown_Founders_Monument : accessed 12 Mar 2023).

Ancestry.com. The public records of the colony of Connecticut [database on-line]. Provo, UT: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2005. Original data: The public records of the colony of Connecticut. Hartford: Brown & Parsons, 1850-1890. Vol. I. Colonial Records, p. 2.

“Great Migration: Passengers of the Arbella, 1630,” geni (https://www.geni.com/projects/Great-Migration-Passengers-of-the-Arbella-1630/5754 : accessed 18 Apr 2023).

“John Winthrop’s journal of the ship Arbella’s voyage to America, March 29 – July 8, 1630,” Historic Ipswich On the Massachusetts North Shore (https://historicipswich.net/2021/03/28/winthrop-journal-arabella/ : accessed 18 Apr 2023).

Jonas Weed probate, Probate records, 1648-1916, Probate records, v. 1-5 1648-1750, FamilySearch, Film #007627300, image 131 of 861 (https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3QS7-892K-TT8C?i=130&cat=359148 : accessed 18 Apr 2023).

History and Genealogy of the Families of Old Fairfield, Vol. I , pp. 652-5.

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