Going back 347 years to 15 November 1670

Most days of most lives are “ordinary.” But, our ordinary is likely very different than the ordinary of our ancestors. Though, in some ways things are probably similar. I’m using a random number generator to decide how many years to go back in time.  The intent is to see which ancestors were living, where they lived, the basics of what was going on in their lives, and what was going on in the world around them.

Going back to 1670 has proven to be much more difficult than my first post in this series when we went back to 1915. There are more ancestors and less information. When we review this date, 347-years in the past, we have to think in generalities rather than in specifics. We don’t have as many exact birth and death dates for people. A lot of the data is based on compiled records and the work of past researchers, so is less verifiable. There are no newspapers to review. History is reported by the decade, at best, when we go back so far in time. So, for this post, I’ve assembled tidbits of information that give us a glimpse into our family tree in 1670.

15 November 2017 – Wednesday

With Halloween behind us, we in 2017 are thinking ahead to Thanksgiving. We look forward to a big feast (or two) and to spending time with relatives. We did get the lefse made! It is great to celebrate our Norwegian heritage and pass the skills down through the generations. It is a lot easier for us than it was for Grandma though – more hands and more modern equipment. We are all happy to have a new baby boy in the family, but unlike his older cousin who now has years of experience, he just slept through all the lefse-making festivities.

Six years of lefse making experience.

News headlines include the following:

  • Strong earthquake hits Iraq and Iran, killing more than 450.
  • New accuser claims sexual assault by Roy Moore in 1970s.
  • Hate crimes rose for 2nd year in a row in 2016, FBI reports.
  • Ready or not, House GOP sets vote on tax overhaul.
  • U.S. budget deficit up sharply in October.
  • Nationalists march on Poland’s Independence day.
  • Texas mass shooting church opens as memorial.
  • US displays military might near Korea.
  • Keenum, Vikings keep rolling by beating Redskins 38-30.
  • Croft, Minnesota run over Nebraska 54-21.

15 November 1670 – Friday

We had more than 405 ancestors living in November 1670. These folks were our 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th… great-grandparents. As you go back in time, the number of ancestors you have grows quickly. You have two parents, four grandparents, eight great-grandparents, sixteen 2nd great-grandparents, and so on. By the time you get to 8th great-grandparents, you are dealing with 512 people in that generation. By the time you get to 10th great-grandparents, you are dealing with 2048.

Chart showing the number of ancestors per generation, the effect marrying a third cousin has on the number of ancestors for subsequent generations, and estimated world populations.

Of course, all family trees, ours included, have situations where relatives marry relatives, so you have the same person showing up multiple times on your family tree. The example above shows what would happen if your grandparents were third cousins. You can see that your total number of unique ancestors goes down. This also shows that when you go back far enough, everyone must be related to themselves because there weren’t enough people alive for you to have all unique ancestors. Anyway, the point is that the number of unique individuals may be less than 1024 at the 9th great-grandparent level, but still, we are looking for a lot of people when we get back that far. There are still blanks to fill our our tree, but at least 405 of our ancestors were living in November 1670.

A random thought: this makes me remember the time when I was a child and my math teacher uncle entertained me (or found a way to keep me quiet) by having me see how far I could get starting with doing 1 + 1 = 2. Followed by 2 + 2 = 4. Followed by 4 + 4 = 8. And so forth. I wonder how far I got. I wonder how long I worked at it.

Where did they live?

In 1670, some of our families had already immigrated to the New World, while others remained in Europe. The following map shows where they were located. For some families, we have to make some assumptions based on where their future descendants emigrated from, but for others, there are records that place specific people in specific places in 1670 (or close to 1670 anyway).

Our ancestors were spread across Europe in 1670. Christianson ancestors could be found in Norway (red markers). Krueger ancestors could be found in Prussia (blue markers). Estes (yellow markers) and Phillips (green markers) ancestors were living across what is now Germany and what is now the United Kingdom.
By 1670, many of our Estes (yellow markers) and Phillips (green markers) ancestors had immigrated to the American Colonies.

What was happening in the world?

It has been extremely difficult to find out what was going on in the world in 1670. There don’t seem to be any major headlines from that year, but a few tidbits could be found. For example, on 7 Nov 2017, a meteorite broke the roof beam of a house in China. 1670 was the year that Puritans founded Charles Town (Charlestown) on the Atlantic cost of the Carolina colony and when Britain established the Hudson Bay Company in Canada.

More generally, the American colonies were still being settled. Boundaries were being drawn and local governments established. Of course, the colonies still were ruled by Europeans. New England was expanding due to emigration of discontented settlers from Massachusetts. The Southern Colonies were being established, with Virginia as its leader. The Middle Colonies were established by the conquests of the Dutch and Swedish, with New York and Pennsylvania being the leading colonies of the middle. There were differences in opinion on whether the colonies should come together into a strong union or, instead, stay apart. This was also a period of time when the English were expelling the French from North America and extending their boundaries westward.

New England

1650 map, The New England Settlements and Neighboring Dutch Settlements (The Growth of a Nation, p. 105)

Agriculture was the main industry for our New England ancestors. But, farming was tough. A man named Professor Channing was quoted, saying, “The New England farmer by constant labor and the exercise of great patience, and by personally overseeing the operations of the farm, was able to make it bring forth enough to feed his family and sometimes to have a little to spare for sale; but anything above the bare needs of existence had to be procured by other means than cultivation of the soil.” So, many New England settlers moved into manufacturing, fishing, ship building and trading.

Our ancestors in New England probably had access to education. Back in 1642, Massachusetts passed a law that required children and servants to be taught to read. In 1649, every village in Massachusetts, with fifty or more home owners, was required to have a teacher. This free-school system expanded across the New England. There was probably not much fun in school though. The Puritans were still the largest and most powerful religious group of the Northern Colonies. And they did not like gaiety and amusements. There were a lot of laws. For example, people could be fined for not going to church on Sunday or even for riding to church with unseemly haste. There were to be no public displays of affection, especially on Sundays, and work was forbidden on the Sabbath. Most towns in New England were small, compact, villages where people lived near one another.

Fitting into the spirits and spirits theme of this website, I’ll mention that there were rules governing alcohol as well. Brewing was forbidden on Sundays (of course) and in 1651, brewers were required to use barley to make their beer rather than using the less expensive maize. There were regulations about pricing too – the price of beer had to go up as malt content grew higher. The rules got more stringent in the 1670s when beverages with higher alcohol content became available. People were fined for drinking excessively. Doing so repeatedly could get someone whipped or put in the stocks. Even with the rules, access to alcohol was a priority in early America. Rum became a preferred drink. There were rum distilleries in places like Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Even after the colonists started making whiskey from corn, rum was still the preferred strong drink.



Largely based on research of other family historians, who passed the information on to me, we can identify 58 Christianson ancestors living in November 1670. The most common female names were Margit and Kari and the most common male name was Ola.

NameApproximate AgeProbable residence in 1670
Gulbrand Torson Ve Gislerud16Flå, Buskerud, Norway
Goer Olsdtr Aavestrud10Flå, Buskerud, Norway
Tor Olson Ve58Flå, Buskerud, Norway
Kari Nilsdtr Gulsvik58Flå, Buskerud, Norway
Randi Helgesdtr Frovoll70Norway
Ole Amundsen Aavestrud51Flå, Buskerud, Norway
Maren Herbrandsdtr Gulsvik39Flå, Buskerud, Norway
Herbrand Guttormson Gulsvik76Flå, Buskerud, Norway
Margit Gautesdtr Bortnes60Flå, Buskerud, Norway
Ole Aslakson Grimsgard Norway
Siri Halvorsdtr Sire40Norway
Aslak Halvorson Grimsgard60Nes, Buskerud, Norway
Rangdi Knutsdtr Bratterud50Nes, Buskerud, Norway
Birgit Steinarsdtr Kinneberg Norway
Halvor Ivarson Medboen45Flå, Buskerud, Norway
Arne Person Rud Hova27Buskerud, Norway
Birgit Ericksdtr Brunsvall19Buskerud, Norway
Per Halverson Devegge Rud65Buskerud, Norway
Sigri Olsdtr Voll Buskerud, Norway
Erick Palson Aavestrud65Buskerud, Norway
Gjartru Amundsdtr Brunsvall Buskerud, Norway
Peder Jorgenson Olsgard15Nes, Buskerud, Norway
Margit Nubsdtr Strande5Ål , Buskerud, Norway
Jorgen Pedersen Holst-Haraldset46Hemsedal, Buskerud, Norway
Maren Stensdtr Haraldset34Nes, Buskerud, Norway
Nub Knutson Kittelsviken27Flå, Buskerud, Norway
Ingeborg Gunvaldsdtr Bordalen Buskerud, Norway
Levor Ostenson Kvie0Hallingdal, Buskerud, Norway
Anne Hansdtr Hallingdal, Buskerud, Norway
Osten Levorson Kvie45Flå, Buskerud, Norway
Liv Andresdtr Jellum30Eggedal, Buskerud, Norway
Andres Knutson Jellum69Eggedal, Buskerud, Norway
Ingebjorg Steinardsdtr Skala Eggedal, Buskerud, Norway
Hans Hanson Tolleivsrud33Flå, Buskerud, Norway
Liv Torsdtr Ve26Flå, Buskerud, Norway
Hans Knutson Tollefsrud65Flå, Buskerud, Norway
Jorand Olsdtr Ve4Flå, Buskerud, Norway
Ola Torson Ve Eidal31Flå, Buskerud, Norway
Ragnild Tolleivsdtr Froysok30Buskerud, Norway
Tolleiv Arneson Froysok65Flå, Buskerud, Norway
Halvor Embrickson Norway
Ågot Torgeirsdtr Norway
Asle Torset6Hemsedal, Hallingdal, Norway
Knut Asleson Norway
Ola Arneson Hoftun12Torpo, Aal, Hallingdal, Buskerud
Margit Steingrimsdatter Hersgard5Norway
Arnie Tollievson Froysok Hoftun40Norway
Kari Torsdatter Ve29Flå, Buskerud, Norway
Ola Jakobson Markegard Hemsedal, Buskerud, Norway
Guro Persdtr Devegge Rud20Hemsedal, Buskerud, Norway
Helge Larsson Aldahl20Voss, Evanger, Hordaland, Norway
Kari Botolosdtr Luren25Voss, Evanger, Hordaland, Norway
Gulleik Knutson Ovstedal10Norway
Knut Torkjelson Ovstedal36Norway
Guri Halvorsdtr Horvei33Norway
Gaute Halvorson N. Skogen-Rud Norway
Mari Andersdtr Norway
Jorgen Pedersen Holst-Haraldset46Nes, Buskerud, Norway

Everybody lived in Norway, but the Christianson last name wasn’t around yet. Well, there may have been people with Christianson or Christiandtr in their middle names, but the last names they used were the names of the farms upon which they resided.

In 1670, our Christianson ancestors were found living in central Norway.

In 1670, Norway was united with Denmark, under Danish rule. The Lutheran church was the state religion. They were still using the Julian calendar, so the year started on March 15th.

Our Norwegian ancestors may have eaten lefse in 1670, but it wasn’t the lefse that we know and love today. The first potatoes weren’t introduced to Norway until the mid-1700s, so their lefse was not made of potatoes. Their lefse was just made with flour. And, it was not soft like ours. It was dried flat-bread. Women made lots of it and stored it on the shelf. When you wanted some, you dipped it in water before you ate it. Ours sounds much better!


We can identify 163 Estes ancestors living in 1670. John was the most common male name. Elizabeth and Mary were the most common female names.

NameApproximate AgeProbable residence in 1670
Abraham Estes23Sandwich, Kent, England
James Chisholm13New Kent, Virginia
Anne Carter13Virginia
Thomas Bradley Virginia
John Girlington36Hornsby, Cumberland, England
Margaret Duckett32England
John Echols20Virginia
Mary Sarah Cave10Virginia
Richard Cave56Virginia
George McCall8Ireland
Martha Moore Ireland
John McCall40Ireland
Mary Smith Ireland
John Meadows12Essex Virginia
Awbrey Essex Virginia
David Holloway6Charles Parish, York, Virginia, USA
James Holloway35Charles Parish, York, Virginia, USA
Ann Charles Parish, York, Virginia, USA
John Matthews20Warwick, Virginia
Elizabeth Tavenor20Warwick, Virginia
John Mills10Essex Virginia
Robert Mills30Essex Virginia
Mary30Essex Virginia
John Mills55Virginia
John Ireson18Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Richard Ireson68Lynn, Essex, Massachusetts
William Branson25Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Margaret Johnson21Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
John Day5Burlington County, New Jersey
Elizabeth Harvey10Burlington County, New Jersey
John Thomas Antrim24Burlington County, New Jersey
Frances Butcher11Biddlesden, Buckinghamshire, England
John Butcher47Biddlesden, Buckinghamshire, England
Anne43Biddlesden, Buckinghamshire, England
Daniel Zealy14England
Martha Eldridge3Driffield, Gloucestershire, England
John Sealy40England
Martha Beckett England
Thomas Eldridge Cirencester, Gloucestershire, England
Amy Cirencester, Gloucestershire, England
Samuel Vail16Southampton, Suffolk, New York, USA
Elizabeth13New Jersey
Thomas Vail42Southampton, Suffolk, New York, USA
Sarah Wentworth Southampton, Suffolk, New York, USA
Samuel Smith26Woodbridge, Middlesex, New Jersey, USA
Esther Dunham11Woodbridge, Middlesex, New Jersey, USA
John Smith56Woodbridge, Middlesex, New Jersey, USA
Susannah Hinckley45Woodbridge, Middlesex, New Jersey, USA
Jonathan Dunham31Woodbridge, Middlesex, New Jersey, USA
Mary Bloomfield28Woodbridge, Middlesex, New Jersey, USA
Richard Singletary85Haverhill, Essex, Massachusetts, USA
Susanna Cooke Haverhill, Essex, Massachusetts, USA
John Shotwell20Elizabeth, Union, New Jersey
Elizabeth Burton New York, USA
Abraham Shotwell46Elizabeth, Union, New Jersey
Edward Fitz Randolph0Barnstable, Barnstable, Massachusetts
Nathaniel Fitz Randolph28Barnstable, Barnstable, Massachusetts
Mary Holley Barnstable, Barnstable, Massachusetts
Edward Fitz Randolph63Piscataway, Middlesex, New Jersey
Elizabeth Blossom50Piscataway, Middlesex, New Jersey
Rose Allen Barnstable, Barnstable, Massachusetts
Willam Newland65Barnstable, Barnstable, Massachusetts
Richard Hartshorne29Middletown, Monmouth, New Jersey
Margaret Carr16Middletown, Monmouth, New Jersey
Robert Carr56Monmouth, New Jersey
William Webster6Scotland
Mary Unknown
John Cowperthwait Flushing, Queens, New York
Sarah Adams2Flushing, Queens, New York
Hugh Cowperthwait22Flushing, Queens, New York
Elizabeth Flushing, Queens, New York
John Adams40Flushing, Queens, New York
Elizabeth Flushing, Queens, New York
Ellen Newton72Plymouth County, Massachusetts, USA
Kenelm Winslow71Massachusetts
John Jackson23Hempstead, Nassau, New York (Long Island)
Elizabeth Seaman17Hempstead, Nassau, New York (Long Island)
Robert Jackson50Hempstead, Nassau, New York (Long Island)
Washburne46Hempstead, Nassau, New York (Long Island)
John Seaman Hempstead, Nassau, New York (Long Island)
William Hallett22Astoria, Queens, New York, USA (Hallet’s Cove)
Sarah Woolsey20Astoria, Queens, New York, USA (Hallet’s Cove)
William Hallett54Astoria, Queens, New York, USA (Hallet’s Cove)
Elizabeth Fones60Astoria, Queens, New York, USA (Hallet’s Cove)
George Woolsey60Jamaica, Queens, New York, USA
Rebecca Cornell49Jamaica, Queens, New York, USA
Rebecca Briggs70Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island, USA
Isaac Doty21Oyster Bay, Nassau, New York (Long Island)
Elizabeth England17Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island
Faith Clarke52Plymouth, Plymouth, Massachusetts
John Phillips67Plymouth, Plymouth, Massachusetts
Elizabeth57Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island, USA
Hugh Parsons57Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island, USA
Isaac Johnson27Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Mary Harris19Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Isaac Johnson55Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Elizabeth Porter60Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Grace Negus67Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Daniel Harris44Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut
Mary Weld43Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut
Samuel Partridge25Hatfield, Hampshire, Massachusetts
Mehitable Crow18Hatfield, Hampshire, Massachusetts
Mary Smith45Hartford, Hartford, Connecticut
John Crow64Hartford, Hartford, Connecticut
William Goodwin79Farmington, Hartford, Connecticut
Susanna Farmington, Hartford, Connecticut
Jonathan Gilbert22Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut
Dorothy Stow11Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut
Jonathan Gilbert51Hartford, Hartford, Connecticut
Mary Welles44Hartford, Hartford, Connecticut
John White Hartford, Hartford, Connecticut
Samuel Stow47Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut
Hope Fletcher45Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut
Daniel Harris17Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut
Abigail Barnes14Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut
Thomas Miller61Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut
Sarah Nettleton26Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut
Samuel Bow11Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut
Mary Turner5Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut
Alexander Bow Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut
Edward Turner37Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut
Mary Sanford34Middletown, Middlesex, Connecticut
Edward Morris12Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Elizabeth Bowen9Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Edward Morris40Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Grace Bett Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Henry Bowen37Woodstock, Windham, Connecticu
Elizabeth Johnson33Woodstock, Windham, Connecticu
Jonathan Peake7Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Hannah Leavens4Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Jonathan Peake33Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Sarah French32Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Dorcas French Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts
William French67Billerica, Middlesex, Massachusetts
Mary Lathrop30Billerica, Middlesex, Massachusetts
John Leavens30Massachusetts
Elizabeth Preston15Massachusetts
Thomas Brownell20Newport County, Rhode Island
Mary Pearce16Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island,
Richard Pearce55Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island,
Susannah Wright43Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island,
Jonathan Thurston11Newport, Newport, Rhode Island,
Sarah Rhode Island
Edward Thurston53Newport, Newport, Rhode Island,
Elizabeth Mott41Newport, Newport, Rhode Island,
John Bailey17Newport County, Rhode Island
Sutton5Newport County, Rhode Island
Grace Parsons30Rhode Island
John Graves Maine
Martha Mitton Maine
Elizabeth Cleaves Portland, Cumberland, Maine
John Borden30Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island,
Mary Earle15Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island,
Richard Borden75Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island,
Joan Fowle66Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island,
William Earle Dartmouth, Bristol, Massachusetts
Ralph Earle64Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island,
Joan Savage74Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island,
Job Briggs22Newport County, Rhode Island
Eleanor18Newport County, Rhode Island
John Briggs Sr61Newport County, Rhode Island
Sarah Cornell Newport County, Rhode Island

Looking at the map, it appears that the Estes family had already conquered most of the Eastern seaboard in the American Colonies. Family members could be found as far south as Virginia and as far north as Maine.

Estes ancestors in 1670.

There were also ancestors who still lived in Europe. Some were living in England and Ireland. Others were in what is now Germany. We can’t yet trace the Meyer and Stadler ancestors back any farther than the early 1800s, but their forebears were most likely living in Germany, possibly in the general areas that they emigrated from such as Hettingen, Neckar-Odenwald-Kreis, Baden-Württemberg, Germany (“near Trier, in the Renish province”); Obrigheim, Neckar-Odenwald-Kreis, Baden-Württemberg, Germany; and Mörtelstein, Neckar-Odenwald-Kreis, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

Colonial Estes, 1670.

Rhode Island

We had quite a few Estes ancestors living in Rhode Island in 1670. Although Massachusetts had originally been settled almost entirely by Puritans, later, only about a fifth of the people belonged to the Puritan church. But, since you could only vote or hold an office if you belonged to that church, most of the people in Massachusetts weren’t able to participate in the political life of the colony. A man named Roger Williams and others, led groups of discontented families southward into Rhode Island. In 1663, just seven years before the year we are studying, Rhode Island was given a liberal charter by Charles II, King of England. This let Rhode Island legally be established as a colony.

Our ancestor, Rebecca Briggs Cornell was a 70-years old widow, living in Portsmouth, Rhode Island with her son and his family. Things were probably not pleasant for her. She was born in England and had immigrated to Massachusetts with her husband when she was a young adult. Her husband prospered in the new world and amassed considerable property in New Amsterdam (New York) and in Rhode Island. When the Quaker movement hit the colonies, Rebecca became a follower. In 1670, she was living in Portsmouth with her son Thomas and his second wife. Times were challenging. There were fears that an attack on settlers by Native Americans was imminent. There were also fears that Rhode Island would be drawn into the war that England had declared on the Dutch. But the real danger to Rebecca was right in her own home. Rebecca and her son, Thomas had a contentious relationship. Thomas’s wife and Rebecca didn’t get along well either. This all came to a tragic conclusion in Feb 1672/73 (a couple years after the year we are studying) with Rebecca’s murder.¹


Maine was governed by Massachusetts in 1670. Our ancestor, Elizabeth Cleaves was living there and perhaps still mourning her parents, Joan Price and George Cleeve, who had both died a few years earlier. Her dad had been the the founder of Portland, Maine. But, in 1670, she was a child, still several years away from marrying John Graves, so we wonder who was taking care of her.


Virginia was the leader of the Southern Colonies, similar to how Massachusetts was the leader of New England. Agriculture was the primary industry, with tobacco being the most valuable crop. Large quantities of tobacco were shipped back to England and then distributed to Germany, Sweden, and other northern European countries. Labor to grow the demanding tobacco and rice crops, came largely through slavery, petty criminals from English jails, or indentured servants. People in Virginia generally lived on large plantations along the coast and along rivers, or on small farms in the interior. They were scattered and it was hard for people to get together very often. Each individual had to attend his own affairs without assistance from others. This applied to many things, including education. In 1671, Governor William Berkeley wrote that he, “thanked God there were no free schools in Virginia, and he hoped there would not be for a hundred years.” Education was the responsibility of the parents, not a duty of the state.

Religion didn’t control things in the south like it did in the north. In Virginia, you didn’t have to belong to a certain church in order to vote or hold office.

The Middle Colonies: New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania

Estes ancestors lived in New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. Those colonies, with the addition of Delaware, made up what was called the Middle Colonies. These places were originally settled by the Dutch and the Swedes, though, the Dutch had since absorbed the Swedes. Then, in 1664, England had taken New Netherland from the Dutch. Taking over these colonies, gave the British some huge benefits: it connected New England to the Southern Colonies, gave them more harbors on the Atlantic coast, opened the fur trade to the west, and, because of the good relationships they developed with the Iroquois, stopped the French from moving south of the St. Lawrence River.

The Quaker movement was started in England in the 1600s by a man named George Fox. The Quakers had some wild ideas. Or, at least that is what organized religion of the day thought. The Quakers believed that God exists in every person. They didn’t have official pastors, so didn’t agree that taxes should go for paying one. They also thought that, spiritually, men and women were equal. Equality for women? – Blasphemy! The first Quaker missionaries came to the New World in the mid-1650s. They were not well received by the ruling powers in England or the Colonies. Massachusetts, for example, persecuted Quakers. Richard Hartshorne, one of our ancestors, is found in the Quaker Meeting minutes in New Jersey. He must have been a follower, as it seems that THE George Fox even stayed at Richard’s house.

Quaker Meeting Records, Richard Hartshorne.


Every one of our Krueger ancestors probably lived in what is now Germany or Poland in November 1870. But, the place wasn’t called Germany and it wasn’t called Poland then. Oh, and we don’t know any of the names of these ancestors.

In 1670, the area where our Krueger ancestors likely lived was not stable. Some of them probably lived in, what was then called, Brandenburg. Prussia and Brandenburg had recently joined forces and Prussia was expanding. Eventually Prussia took over, but that was long after 1670.² In 1674 and 1675, just a few years into the future for our 1670 ancestors, there was a Swedish invasion of Brandenburg. Who knew?

Most of the ancestors considered themselves from Pomerania once they got to Wisconsin (almost two centuries after 1670). The Encyclopedia Britannica gives us some insight to the history of Pomerania. It tells us that western and central Pomerania (including Stettin which is a familiar name to our ancestors) was ruled by Polish dukes until the 17th century. Then, in 1637, the area was acquired by Brandenburg when the last Polish duke died. Then in 1648, western Pomerania was handed over to Sweden. Hey, that could explain the Scandinavian DNA showing up in our guy who should have had an ethnicity estimate of 100% German.

Thus far, the Krueger family and all the assorted lines (think Aschbrenner, Fehlhaber, etc.) can only be traced back as far as the early 1800s. We can make some assumptions that, 130-years earlier, most of the ancestors were living in places like Cardemin, Stettin, Pommern, Germany; Lebbin, Kreis Greifenberg, Pommern, Preussen, Germany, Plathe (Piepenburg, Heidebreck), Pommern, Preußen, Gross Justin, Pommerania; Henchin Felde, Hamburg, Germany; Schleswig-Holstein, Germany; Tutzluf, Germany, Hansfelde, Posen, Prussia; Dobberphul, Pommern, Prussia; and Prossekel, Kreis Filehne, Posen, Prussia. But, we would just be making an educated guess.

In 1670, our Krueger ancestors were probably living in what is now northeastern Germany and northwestern Poland.


We know we had at least 184 Phillips ancestors living in November 1670. The most common male names were John and Johann. Anna, Mary, and Elizabeth were the most popular female names.

A disclaimer needs to be made that our 1670 German ancestors were found by another family historian who did research at the family history libraries in Salt Lake City and beyond. She transcribed German parish records and put together a tree. But, I have not had access to those records and have not personally verified the research. So, the “German” names in this list may be accurate, but are not considered 100% proven.

NameApproximate AgeProbable residence in 1670
Joshua Holmes35Stonington, New London, Connecticut
Abigail Ingraham Stonington, New London, Connecticut
Robert Holmes Stonington, New London, Connecticut
Samuel Chesebrough43Stonington, New London, Connecticut
Samuel Frink2Stonington, New London, Connecticut
Ephraim Miner28Stonington, New London, Connecticut
Hannah Avery26Stonington, New London, Connecticut
Thomas Miner62Stonington, New London, Connecticut
Grace Palmer62Stonington, New London, Connecticut
James Avery50Stonington, New London, Connecticut
Joanna Greenslade48New London County, Connecticut
Isaac Wheeler24Stonington, New London, Connecticut
Martha Park24Stonington, New London, Connecticut
Thomas Wheeler68Stonington, New London, Connecticut
Mary Stonington, New London, Connecticut
Thomas Parke Sr54Preston City, New London, Connecticut
Dorothy Thompson46Preston City, New London, Connecticut
Jeremiah Shepard22Harvard College,Cambridge, Middlesex, Massachusetts
Mary Wainwright13Massachusetts
John Baldwin35New London, New London, Connecticut
Rebecca Palmer23Stonington, New London, Connecticut
Ebenezer Billings9New London County, Connecticut
Anna Comstock9Norwich, New London, Connecticut
Thomas Bennett28Fairfield, Fairfield, Connecticut
Elizabeth Thompson26Fairfield, Fairfield, Connecticut
Abraham Adams20Fairfield, Fairfield, Connecticut
Edward Adams51Fairfield, Fairfield, Connecticut
Mary Fairfield, Fairfield, Connecticut
Samuel Hickock2Farmington, Hartford, Connecticut
Elizabeth Plumb1Milford, New Haven, Connecticut
Samuel Hickock27Farmington, Hartford, Connecticut
Hannah Upson22Farmington, Hartford, Connecticut
John Plumbe24Milford, New Haven, Connecticut
Elizabeth Norton25Milford, New Haven, Connecticut
Mary Baldwin44Milford, New Haven, Connecticut
Dorothy Connecticut
Elizabeth Purcas County Essex, England
John Norton48Farmington, Hartford, Connecticut
Elizabeth Clark Farmington, Hartford, Connecticut
Jonathan Rockwell5Stamford, Fairfield, Connecticut
John Rockwell Jr. Stamford, Fairfield, Connecticut
John Rockwell Rye, Westchester, Connecticut
Elizabeth Weed23Rye, Westchester, Connecticut
Jonas Weed60Stamford, Fairfield, Connecticut
Mary Stamford, Fairfield, Connecticut
Samuel Camfield25New Haven, New Haven, Connecticut
Elizabeth Merwin22New Haven, New Haven, Connecticut
Matthew Camfield66Newark, Essex, New Jersey
Sarah Treat50Newark, Essex, New Jersey
Miles Merwin47Charlestown, Suffolk, Massachusetts
John Lovering7Dover, Strafford, New Hampshire
Hannah Kilham6Wenham, Essex, Massachusetts
Hester47Dover, Strafford, New Hampshire
Daniel Kilham50Wenham, Essex, Massachusetts
Mary Safford40Wenham, Essex, Massachusetts
Elizabeth Ipswich, Essex, Massachusetts
Nicholas Smith9Exeter, Rockingham, New Hampshire
Mary Gordon2Exeter, Rockingham, New Hampshire
Nicholas Smith41Exeter, Rockingham, New Hampshire
Mary Satchell Exeter, Rockingham, New Hampshire
Alexander Gordon35Exeter, Rockingham, New Hampshire
Mary Listen31Exeter, Rockingham, New Hampshire
Nicholas Listen Exeter, Rockingham, New Hampshire
Alice Exeter, Rockingham, New Hampshire
Benjamin Hall2Rehoboth, Bristol, Massachusetts
Sarah Fisher2Wrentham, Norfolk, Massachusetts
Edward Hall Rehoboth, Bristol, Massachusetts
Cornelius Fisher38Wrentham, Norfolk, Massachusetts
Sarah Everett26Wrentham, Norfolk, Massachusetts
Anthony Fisher79Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Richard Everett Dedham, Norfolk, Massachusetts
Mary Winch51Dedham, Norfolk, Massachusetts
Eliezer Fisher7Wrentham, Norfolk, Massachusetts
Hannah Leonard Wrentham, Norfolk, Massachusetts
Sarah Whitmore12Charlestown, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Samuel Frost32Billerica, Middlesex, Massachusetts
Edmund Frost77Cambridge, Middlesex, Massachusetts
Elizabeth Miller21Billerica, Middlesex, Massachusetts
Joseph Estabrook1Concord, Middlesex, Massachusetts
Hannah Leavitt6Hingham, Plymouth, Massachusetts
Joseph Estabrook30Concord, Middlesex, Massachusetts
Mary Mason30Concord, Middlesex, Massachusetts
Hugh Mason65Watertown, Middlesex, Massachusetts
Hester Wells59Watertown, Middlesex, Massachusetts
John Leavitt62Hingham, Plymouth, Massachusetts
Sarah Gilman48Hingham, Plymouth, Massachusetts
John Bacon46Dedham, Norfolk, Massachusetts
Rebecca Hall38Dedham, Norfolk, Massachusetts
Francis Hall62Stratford, Fairfield, Connecticut
John Loker20Sudbury, Middlesex, Massachusetts
Sarah Rice15Sudbury, Middlesex, Massachusetts
Mary Draper Sudbury, Middlesex, Massachusetts
Matthew Rice40Sudbury, Middlesex, Massachusetts
Martha Lamson37Sudbury, Middlesex, Massachusetts
Thomas Sawin13Middlesex, Massachusetts
Deborah Rice11Sudbury, Middlesex, Massachusetts
John Sawin45Middlesex, Massachusetts
Abigail Munnings43Middlesex, Massachusetts
George Lyon8Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Thankful Badcock2Milton, Norfolk, Massachusetts
George Lyon Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Hannah Tolman28Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Thomas Tolman Senior62Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Sarah58Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Robert Badcock Milton, Norfolk, Massachusetts
Joanna41Milton, Norfolk, Massachusetts
John Russell3Hatfield, Hampshire, Massachusetts
Martha Graves3Wethersfield, Hartford, Connecticut
Philip Russell42Hatfield, Hampshire, Massachusetts
Elizabeth Terry28Hatfield, Hampshire, Massachusetts
John Russell73Hadley, Hampshire, Massachusetts
Elizabeth Hadley, Hampshire, Massachusetts
Samuel Wolcott14Windsor, Hartford, Connecticut
Judith Appleton17Massachusetts
Henry Wolcott60Windsor, Hartford, Connecticut
Sarah Newberry49Windsor, Hartford, Connecticut
Samuel Appleton46Massachusetts
Nathaniel Collins28Connecticut
Mary Whiting27Connecticut
Edward Collins67Charlestown, Suffolk, Massachusetts
Martha61Charlestown, Suffolk, Massachusetts
George Wolcott18Connecticut
Elizabeth Curtis Connecticut
Johannas Stolp4Emmerichenhain, Germany
Christoffel Stalp31Emmerichenhain, Germany
Anna Catharina Schäfer30Emmerichenhain, Germany
Johann Schäfer53Prussia
Christianus Jung20Zehnhausen bei Rennerod, Germany
Anna Maria Diel16Zehnhausen bei Rennerod, Germany
Sebastiani Jung55Zehnhausen bei Rennerod, Germany
Kiniundta Stalp40Zehnhausen bei Rennerod, Germany
Johannes Diel60Zehnhausen bei Rennerod, Germany
Anna50Zehnhausen bei Rennerod, Germany
Sebastianus Spornhauer14Salzburg, Hessen-Nassau, Prussia
Anna Elisabetha Kopfer10Oberroßbach, Germany
Antony Spornhauer50Germany
Gerlach Kopfer35Oberroßbach, Germany
Johann Christ Thiel0Rehe, Germany
Anna Gertruda Greb0Homberg, Germany
Christian Diel30Rehe, Germany
Anna Catharina Goebel25Rehe, Germany
Johannes Thiel55Rehe, Germany
Sophia Feiga50Rehe, Germany
Christian Goebel58Rehe, Germany
An Els50Rehe, Germany
Theis Greb27Homberg, Germany
Anna Elisabetha Sahm20Homberg, Germany
Johann Chrstopher Saam65Homberg, Germany
Johann Wilhelm Goebel15Rehe, Germany
Maria Elisabeth Thomas10Rehe, Germany
Clas Thomas50Rehe, Germany
Anna Catharina25Rehe, Germany
Johannes Kuntz18Zehnhausen bei Rennerod, Germany
Anna Maria Jung9Rehe, Germany
Johannes Jung45Rehe, Germany
Elsa40Rehe, Germany
Peter Thomas5Möhrendorf, Germany
Johann Jost Lautz Thomas40Germany
Anna Catharina35Germany
Hans Michel Hartmann20Rehe, Germany
Anna Catharina20Rehe, Germany
Best Jung24Zehnhausen bei Rennerod, Germany
Kiniundta20Zehnhausen bei Rennerod, Germany
Johann Georg Stahl21Emmerichenhain, Germany
Anna Elisabeth Müller17Emmerichenhain, Germany
Johann Wilhelm Stahl50Emmerichenhain, Germany
Maria Elisabetha Brecher50Emmerichenhain, Germany
Jacob Müller42Emmerichenhain, Germany
Catharina Türk45Emmerichenhain, Germany
Johann Thonges Stahl15Emmerichenhain, Germany
Ann Els0Emmerichenhain, Germany
Johannes Haas20Emmerichenhain, Germany
Anna Maria Saam16Emmerichenhain, Germany
Jacob Haas45Germany
Anna Maria40Germany
Johann Christopher Saam65Germany
Anna Elisabeth50Germany
Henrich Müller13Emmerichenhain, Germany
Elisabetha Claus9Germany
Johann Weigand Claus40Germany
Hermann Jung10Driedorf, Germany
Rebecca Short60Stonington, New London, Connecticut
In 1670, our Phillips ancestors were found in New England and Europe.


Colonial Phillips, 1670.


Connecticut, where many of our Phillips and Estes ancestors lived, had been given its charter from King Charles II in 1662. Settlement in Connecticut wasn’t about religion or politics like it had been for Rhode Island. It was about wanting more land. Way back in 1636, the pastor of the church of Newtown, Massachusetts led his congregation to Hartford, on the Connecticut River, to form a new settlement. Other emigrants quickly followed and by the end of 1636, there were nearly a thousand English inhabitants in the Connecticut River valley.

Many of the Phillips ancestors who lived in the colonies in November 1670 were prominent in their communities. There was even a note about Francis Hall in the Fairfield County records.

Francis Hall, Fairfield County, Connecticut, November 1670.

New Hampshire

In 1670, New Hampshire was still controlled by Massachusetts. It wasn’t until 1679, seven years after the year we are studying, that King Charles II separated New Hampshire from Massachusetts and issued a charter for the royal Province of New Hampshire.

But, our ancestors were there already. Nicholas Listen, for example, lived at Exeter and was tasked with being a member of a committee to lay out town boundaries between Exeter and neighboring towns. The History of the town of Exeter, New Hampshire explained how difficult it was to get the job done.

History of the town of Exeter, New Hampshire, p. 118. (Archive.org)
History of the town of Exeter, New Hampshire, p. 119. {Archive.org)

The End

Writing this, I’ve been able to visit some ancestors who haven’t had attention in many years. It was really hard to not stop and do research on each and every one of them, because I suspect I would have found interesting things and found corrections to make to the family tree. But, had I let myself get distracted, this wouldn’t be posted for years. I ran out of time as it is. This has been a challenging exercise, but it has given me greater perspective into our families and the world in 1670. I’ve learned quite a few things. Hopefully, you will find the random tidbits of information that I shared here interesting too. (Next time we won’t be traveling quite so far back in time…)

Notes and Selected Sources:

¹ Elaine Forman Crane, Killed strangely: the death of Rebecca Cornell (New York: Cornell University Press, 2002)

² Two YouTube videos are available to visually show the changing borders. See Brandenburg and Prussia (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ScqfgwAZhGc) and History of Prussia (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=az-d0cWrbJM).

“1661 to 1670,” Macrohistory and World Timeline, Web, 9 Nov 2017, http://www.fsmitha.com/time/ce17-7.htm.

Ancestry.com, U.S., Quaker Meeting Records, 1681-1935 (Provo, UT, USA, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2014), Ancestry.com, Swarthmore College; Swarthmore, Pennsylvania; Records of Marriages, 1674-1853, Births 1641-1869, Deaths, 1666-1876; Collection: Quaker Meeting Records; Call Number: MR Ph:585. Record for Richard Hartshorne.

Charles Henry Bell, History of the town of Exeter, New Hampshire, (Exeter, NH, 1888), pp. 118-9. Archive.Org, Web, 12 Nov 2017, https://archive.org/details/historyoftownofe00bell.

“Combined: 1500 to 1700,” History of the World, Web, 9 Nov 2017, http://www.lukemastin.com/history/by_date_4.html.

Eugene C. Barker, Walter P. Webb, and William E. Dodd, The Growth of a Nation (Evanston, Illinois: Row, Peterson and Company, 1937)

“History of Norway,” History World, Web, 2 Nov 2017, http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ac73.

“History of Quakerism,” History, Web, 12 Nov 2017, http://www.history.com/topics/history-of-quakerism.

James Hammond Trumbull, The public records of the colony of Connecticut from 1636-1776 (Hartford: Press of the Case : Lockwood & Brainard Company, 1850) Archive Org, Web, 2017, https://archive.org/details/publicrecords02conn, p. 148.

Jayaram V, “Your Ancestors For 50 Generations,” Hinduwebsite.com, Web, 2 Nov 2017, http://www.hinduwebsite.com/general/geneologycalc.asp.

Ken Polsson, “1670,” Chronology of World History, 2007-2017, Web, 9 Nov 2017, http://worldtimeline.info/wor1670.htm.

“Lefse History,” Lefse Time, Web, 12 Nov 2017, https://www.lefsetime.com/lefse-history/.

“Norway Timeline,” Family Search, Web, 2 Nov 2017, https://www.familysearch.org/wiki/en/Norway_Timeline.

“Pomerania,” Encyclopedia Britannica, Web, 12 Nov 2017, https://www.britannica.com/place/Pomerania.

“Right on Lefse,” My Little Norway, Web, 12 Nov 2017, http://mylittlenorway.com/2009/07/right-on-lefse/.

Rod Phillips, Alcohol: A History, (Chapel Hill: UNC Press Books, 2014), Google Books (https://books.google.com/books?id=r1g7BAAAQBAJ : accessed 9 Nov 2017)

“The Middle Colonies,” U.S. History, Web, 12 Nov 2017, http://www.ushistory.org/us/4b.asp.

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